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The process of rousing Kundalini has two main forms—Waidika and Tantrika. Then Kundali passes through the Wishnu-knot and reaches where the Rudra-knot is, and there she stays. The Rudra-knot is pierced through by repeated sahita breath suspension carried to a high level’. Let us first consider the Waidika process.

Let us first consider the Waidika process.

Waidika Process of Kundalini-rousing The process of rousing Kundalini mainly consists in concentration, breathcontrol (pranayama) and certain control exercises (mudras). Concentration is also done on aroused Kundalini in different chakras (subtle centres), the most important of which is the hrit centre at the region of the heart. It is stated: ‘Hridaya (hrit centre) is like a lotus, hanging with its face downwards, and there is some sound phenomenon associated with the flow of life-energy. Within this centre is shining superlight, which appears vast and unrestricted. Within this superlight is luminescence which is subtle and aroused. Within this luminescence lies

Supreme Being’ (—Mahopanishad, 1.12–14). The hrit centre normally lies with its head downward. When the awakened Kundalini reaches it, the centre opens upward and is illuminated by a vast light within which is the formless and aroused luminous Kundalini. Within Kundaliniis Supreme Consciousness. The rousing of Kundalini and its conduction into the hrit centre is the process of concentration. At the first stage, only a vast light is realized. At the second stage, when concentration becomes deeper, Kundalini is realized within that light. And, finally, when concentration is deepest Supreme Being is realized within Kundalini.

The seat of Kundalini in latent form is termed Kundali-sthana (seat of Kundali). It has been stated that the middle of the body is what is called kandasthana (perineal region), which is oval-shaped and the central part of which is called nabhi (centre). Therein lies a chakra (centre) having twelve spokes. Above the twelve-spoked centre which is above the horizontal line of nabhi is Kundalisthana (Trishikhibrahmanopanishad, Mantra section, 58–62). That is, at the central part of the perineal region, there is a twelve-spoked subtle centre (inside the coccyx), above which lies the seat of Kundalini (that is, in the muladhara).

It has been further stated: ‘In the perineal region is the seat of light (shikhisthana), triangular in shape and shining like molten gold. . . . It is situated two digits above the anus and two digits below the genitals. Two digits below from the centre is the seat of Kundali. That Kundali is in eight coils in relation to eight creative principles’ (—Darshanopanishad, 4.1–2, 11). That is, the seat of Kundali is within a very bright triangle. The triangle is situated at the middle point of the perineum. The triangle containing the seat of Kundali is within the muladhara.

This is why Kundalini is called AdharaShakti (Power in muladhara) (— Yogashikhopanishad, 6.23). The shining triangle at the perineal region is within the muladhara. It is stated: ‘Muladhara is situated in the region (perineum) between the anus and the genitals and in it lies a triangle; . . . where (in the triangle) lies Supreme Kundalini Power’ (—Yogashikhopanishad, 1.168–9). Therefore, the seat of Kundalini is within the triangle situated in muladhara. In this seat, Kundalini is in a latent form.

It is stated: In the posterior aspect of adhara (muladhara), the three nadis (pranic power-lines) (ida, piṅgala and sushumna) are united. . . . In adhara is Pashchima-Liṅga (that is, Liṅga situated behind in the triangle of muladhara and is called Swayambhu; Swayambhuliṅga is Supreme Consciousness in a spiritual form) where lies the door (to the brahma nadi); one becomes free from all worldliness when this door is opened. In the posterior aspect of adhara, if the moon and sun (the ida and piṅgala flows) become still, there stands the Lord of the universe; the yogi becomes absorbed into Brahma in concentration. In the posterior aspect of adhara, there are different aspects of God in form. When inspiration and expiration through the left and right nostrils are controlled, the sushumna (central force-motion line) flow starts, and Kundalini is aroused and passes through the six chakras situated within the sushumna, and ultimately goesbeyond brahmarandhra (the end point of brahma nadi, and consequently sushumna, to reach Sahasrara). Those who enter the brahmarandhra attain the highest spiritual state’ (—Yogashikhopanishad, 6.30–4).

Here the arousing of Kundalini and her passing through the subtle centres have been described. In the posterior aspect of muladhara lies sushumna (firelike central force-motion line) and there ida. (white force-motion line) and piṅgala (red force-motion line) have been united with sushumna. There is the specific form of Shiwa (Supreme Consciousness) termed Pashchima-or SwayambhuLiṅga, around which Kundalini is in coils. The door to brahma nadi is there. The entrance to sushumna is, as it were, in a collapsed state when Kundalini is in latent form. At this stage, the pranic force currents are creating ida and piṅgala flows, and as a result inspiration and expiration continue through the nostrils. By controlling inspiration and expiration by kumbhaka (suspension), the ida-piṅgala flows are stopped; and with the development of kumbhaka the entrance to sushumna is opened. Kundalini is also aroused by kumbhaka and enters sushumna, and, step by step, passes through all the chakras lying within the sushumna, and ultimately, passing through brahmarandhra—the end point of sushumna, reaches sahasrara.

Breath control plays an important role in rousing Kundalini. When breath suspension is developed to its highest point, it normally becomes noninspiratory-non-expiratory suspension (kewala kumbhaka). Kundalini is awakened by this form of suspension. So it is stated: ‘By kewala kumbhaka Kundalini is aroused’ (—Shandilyopanishad, 1.7.13–15). But noninspiratorynon-expiratory suspension is only possible when a yogi has ascended to the highest level of breathcontrol. The easier method is bhastra kumbhaka (thoracico-short-quick breathcontrol with suspension). It is stated: ‘Bhastra kumbhaka causes the arousing of Kundali . . . and removes impurities and other unfavourable conditions in relation to the entrance to brahma nadi’ (— Yogakundalyupanishad, 1.38). Moreover, ‘The arousing of Kundali is effected by bhastra kumbhaka. . . . It also helps (Kundalini) to pierce the three knots; this breath control should be specially practised’ (—Yogashikhopanishad, 1.99–100).

To make breathcontrol effective, it is necessary to create a purified state in the forcefield (nadichakra) for the forceful operation of prana. It has been stated: ‘A yogi who is perfectly motionless in posture and is well-controlled and habitually taking a moderate and healthful diet, should practise left-inspiration-suspensionright-expiration and right-inspiration-suspension-left-expiration breath suspension in the lotus posture to get the impurities in the sushumna nadi (central fiery red force-line) absorbed’ (—Shandilyopanishad, 1.7.1).

Here, sahita breathcontrol has been advised for its internal purificatory effects. Theforce-motion system (nadichakra) is purified and the sushumna flow occurs. So it is stated: ‘When the force-motion system is purified by the right application of the control of prana (breathcontrol), bioenergy passes freely through sushumna;when this central vital flow occurs, the mind becomes calm and this leads to the state of deep concentration’ (—Shandilyopanishad, 1.7.9–10). The central vital flow is very important for arousing and conducting Kundali power through sushumna. This is why sahita breathcontrol is the basic practice.

The control of apana is intimately related to the rousing of Kundalini. The apanic control is effected by anal-lock. It is stated: ‘When the downward motion of apana is reversed by the powerful anal contraction, which is called mulabandha, the apana-force reaches the heat-energy centre, heat-energy is stirred up, and then apana and heat-energy stimulate prana and the body full of heat-energy. The coiled Kundalini. being excited by this heat-energy, is aroused and, like a beaten serpent, becomes uncoiled and animated,—and through the entrance passes into the brahma nadi’ (—Yogakundalyupanishad, 1.42–6).

The entrance to sushumna, called Kundalinikapata (door of Kundalini), is opened by anal-lock. It is stated: ‘The yogi should pass through brahmarandhra by opening the door of Kundalini by (anal) contraction. The entrance to the sushumna path, through which the yogi has to pass, is covered by the sleeping and coiled Kundalini (that is Kundalini in latent form). He who is able to arouse that power (Kundalini), will attain liberation. If Kundalini sleeps above the throat (that is, if aroused Kundalini goes into the state of samadhi in Sahasrara), the yogi will be liberated; but it will cause bondage for spiritually ignorant persons, should Kundalini sleep below the throat (i.e., it is not possible to attain spiritual knowledge, if Kundalini remains in a coiled state in muladhara)’ (— Shandilyopanishad, 1.7.36–1–36–3).

The process of arousing Kundalini consists mainly in breathcontrol, anal-lock and concentration. It is stated: ‘A yogi endowed with the power of concentration can get senseconsciousness absorbed in sushumna and respiration under control.

When impurities in the forcefield are eliminated (by sahita breathcontrol) the pranic force flows towards the right directions (and with full strength); (under this condition) if the centrifugal bioenergy (apana) is made to flow upwards by forceful (anal-) contraction, termed mulabandha, it radiates into the centre of central bioenergy (prana wayu), and then both these forces (prana and apana), together with heat-energy, radiate into the seat of Kundalini who is in a coiled form; Kundali is excited by fire-energy and aroused by the two forms of bioenergy (prana and apana), and passes into the sushumna. Then Kundali passes through the Brahma-knot arising from force-motion principle, and suddenly flashes like a streak of lightning in the sushumna.‘Then Kundalini passes upward and reaches the Wishnu-knot situated at the heart region (that is, the anahata centre); then (after passing through this knot) Kundali goes still higher and reaches the Rudra-knot situated in the space between the eyebrows (that is, the ajña centre), and then piercing through it, she goes into the moon-sphere (shitangshumandala) where the anahata centre lies with sixteen petals. (According to the Tantras, this centre is called indu and has sixteen petals.)

‘Then Kundali absorbs the eight creative principles arising from the negativity principle (prakriti) and goes to her own abode (that is sahasrara), and finally becomes united with Shiwa (Supreme Consciousness) and is absorbed into him. At this stage prana and apana, which are functioning together, are neutralized, and breathing is normally suspended’ (—Yogakundalyupanishad, 1.62–69, 74– 75).

Here, the process of arousing Kundalini and her conduction through sushumna and her absorption into Shiwa (Supreme Consciousness) has been explained. It is a highly complex process. The first part of the process consists in the control of apana by kumbhaka (breathsuspension) in conjunction with anal-lock and concentration. The controlled apana ceases its normal activities and exhibits its super-function by which the fire-principle represented by ‘Rang’ (mantra) is excited, thus causing radiations of subtle fire-energy. The fire-energy and reversed apana-force stimulate prana to exhibit its hidden power. Now, the apana and prana forces under the power of control are transformed into a concentrated energy, and are represented by the mantra ‘Yang’. By the right application of ‘Rang’ and ‘Yang’ in kumbhaka, these forces radiate on the coiled Kundalini, and are absorbed into her, who is then aroused. The kumbhaka will not be forceful enough unless it operates in a purified forcefield. This force-purification (nadi shuddhi) is effected by sahita breathcontrol combined with internal cleansing and purificatory diet.

The aroused Kundalini, who appears splendorous, passes through the sushumna, first by piercing the Brahma-knot situated in muladhara, and then breaking through the Wishnu-knot in anahata and, finally, passing through the Rudra-knot in ajña, reaches the moon-centre. When Kundalini passes through different centres in the sushumna, she exhibits her absorptive power by which the main creative principles, viz., five sensory principles, sensemind, senseconsciousness and intellect are absorbed. After the absorption is complete, Kundalini reaches sahasrara and, finally, is united with and absorbed into Shiwa —Supreme Consciousness. This is the stage of asamprañata samadhi—nonmens supreme concentration. At this stage there is a natural suspension of animation.

This supreme state is supreme bliss. So it is stated : ‘This is the supreme state,full of supreme bliss’ (—Yogakundalyupanishad, 1.87). It has further been stated: ‘Kundali who is in eight coils should be aroused by breath suspension carried to a high level according to the process of shaktichalana (power-conduction). The arousing of Kundali is done while performing anal-contraction (during breathsuspension) . . . Assuming the wajrasana (adamantine posture), the upward contraction (i.e., anal-contraction)should be practised regularly. The fire-energy ignited by bioenergy (that is, the upward apana stimulates the fire-energy in breathsuspension with analcontraction) radiates into Kundali; thus being “heated”, she becomes awakened. Then she enters into chandra-danda (brahma nadi) lying within the sushumna, and pierces through the Brahma-knot with (concentrated) bioenergy and “fire”.

Then Kundali passes through the Wishnu-knot and reaches where the Rudra-knot is, and there she stays. The Rudra-knot is pierced through by repeated sahita breath suspension carried to a high level’ (—Yogashikhopanishad, 1.82–7).

After the Rudra-knot is passed through, Kundalini assumes more the nature of Shiwa (Supreme Consciousness). Then inspiration-expiration is neutralized and noninspiratory-non-expiratory suspension (kewala kumbhaka) follows. Normally, at this stage, the supreme union of Shiwa and Shakti (Kundali) takes place in supreme concentration (—Yogashikhopanishad, 1.115–17).

The process, by which Kundali power is conducted from her seat—muladhara—to the space between the eyebrows, that is ajña, is called shaktichalana— power-conduction. This process essentially comprises breathsuspension and a special process termed saraswati-chalana (-motion). Kundalini is aroused by breath suspension and saraswati-motion. The following is the saraswati-motionprocess: Assuming the lotus posture, breathsuspension is done after inspirationthrough the left nostril, and at the same time throat-contraction (i.e. jalandharabandha—chinlock), abdominal retraction and anal-contraction are executed. During breathsuspension, the central abdominal muscle (rectus abdominis) should be rolled (in nauli form) from the right to the left and from the left to the right again and again. Expiration should be done through the right nostril (—Yogakundalyupanishad, 1.7–16). The saraswati-motion is an extremely complicated process and should be learnt directly from a guru.

There is an advanced Waidika process of awakening Kundalini. It consists, first, in the execution of throat-contraction (chinlock), powerful anal-contraction and the pressing of the laryngeal region with the fully elongated and retroverted tongue (that is, tongue-lock), assuming the siddhasana; and then the awakened Kundali should be conducted by wajrakumbhaka (the special form of breath suspension used for the conduction of Kundali in different centres and to pierce through the knots) until she passes through the moon-sphere (indu centre)and reaches sahasrara (—Brahmawidyopanishad, 72–5). The great yogi Dattatreya expounded to his disciple Saṅkriti an advanced

Waidika process of awakening Kundalini.

He said: ‘Pressing the perineum with the right or the left heel and placing the opposite heel on the other ankle (that is, assuming the siddhasana with a heel set against the perineum to exert strong pressure on it), (being seated in this manner) the yogi should draw in air through the urethra (by special pranayama), using the pranawa mantra, and then he should concentrate the force (developed from the most powerful anoperineal contraction, thus causing the strong upward motion of apana) on (the triangle of) muladhara. Fire, being kindled by wayu (apana), arouses Kundali’ (— Darshanopanishad, 6.38–42).

Here, a special pranayama (breathcontrol) has been explained. This pranayama causes the urethral suction of air when applied in conjunction with very powerful anal and perineal contraction. The pranayama together with anoperineal contraction causes the upward motion of apana and is concentrated in the triangle of muladhara. The concentrated apana stimulates fire-energy there, and fire-energy, together with apana, arouses Kundalini. Tantrika Process of Kundalini-rousing Real spiritual knowledge does not arise if Kundalini is not aroused; the mantraflame is not ignited if Kundalini remains coiled. It has been stated: ‘In muladhara lies that power (Kundali) which is in the form of a serpent (that is coiled). When that power is aroused, (its coil is changed into) circular motion and then with radiating mantra-sound she goes to her own abode (that is sahasrara) through brahmarandhra . . . where the absorption of mind takes place’ (—Nilatantra, ch. 10, p. 28). The coiled Kundalini is Kundalini in latent form. The coil is uncoiled in a circular motion when she is aroused. The roused Kundalini passes through brahma nadi to the sahasrara where the absorption of mind takes place in samadhi.

Kundalini is in samadhi in sahasrara. It has been said: ‘In the innermost part of the great lotus (centre) sahasrara Kundalini in the form of a garland of fifty matrikaunits lies round Shiwa’ (—Todalatantra, ch. 9, p. 17). This is the samadhi state of Kundalini. This state of Kundalini is only realizable in samadhi. A yogi, conducting Kundalini to sahasrara, attains samadhi in which the superknowledge of oneness with God arises. So, it has been stated: ‘After conducting Kundalini (to sahasrara), one realizes in concentration one’s being as the being of Shiwa’ (—Todalatantra, ch. 4, p. 8).The aroused Kundalini manifests the power of absorption by which all creative principles are withdrawn. It has been stated: ‘The divine, coiled Kundalini, arising from muladhara, passes through the sushumna path to the void-centre (wishuddha) and absorbs all creative principles, and then comes toher own abode (sahasrara)’ (—Phetkarinitantra, ch. 14, p. 39).

Parwati said: ‘It is not possible to effect kundali-motion (—changkrama) (that is, arousing Kundali and conducting her through the sushumna to the sahasrara) without yoga. So long Kundalini is sleeping (that is, in a latent form) in the mula-lotus (muladhara), mantra, yantra (special diagrams) and worship are not fruitful’ (—Gandharwatantra, ch. 5, p. 24). This means that deep concentration is the fundamental factor in arousing Kundalini, and concentration is done on coiled Kundalini in muladhara with pranayama and anoperineal contraction. It has been stated: ‘In the triangle which is in the nature of will-knowledge-action and is situated within the muladhara, Swayambhuliṅga is shining like a million suns. Above, is Kundali, red in colour, as the flame of Swayambhuliṅga, supremely subtle, and the sentience of all beings is derived from her; and she is Supreme Power and is called Goddess in the form of mantra (shabda-brahma); she, in a coiled form, is within all beings. . . . First, concentrate your mind on muladhara with inspiratory control and arouse that power (Kundali) by the execution of anoperineal control’ (—Gandharwatantra, ch.5, p. 27–8). So, in the arousing of Kundalini, concentration, pranayama and anoperineal contraction are used. It is practically the same type of process as that used in the Waidika process.

More about Kundalini: ‘In the muladhara, lies Kundalini, who is spiritual consciousness, very bright-shining like a million lightnings, in the form ofmantra with fifty matrikaunits, endowed with thirty-eight forms of superpower, supremely subtle and capable of passing through the Brahma-, Wishnu and Rudra-knots’ (—Gandharwatantra, ch. 29, p. 112). It is extremely difficult to hold in consciousness such a subtle form of Kundalini. At first, her lustrous form should be taken for concentration. Gradually, as concentration goes deeper, her subtle form emerges from her splendorous form. In time, her other aspects also arise in concentration in consciousness. That concentration should be done on Kundalini in muladhara has been stated: ‘Concentrate on divine Kundalini who is in the nature of spiritual knowledge and in the form of matrikaunits, lying in the triangle of muladhara, where resides the shining liṅga which is named Swayambhu; here mental japa should be done’ (—Gandharwatantra, ch. 29, pp. 108–9).

Shiwa has explained the process of concentration on Kundalini. He has alsostated that pranayama (breathcontrol) is absolutely necessary for deep internalpurification (—Gandharwatantra, ch. 10, p. 47). About concentration, he stated:

‘Concentrate every day on Kundalini . . . who is red and shining like a million suns and subtle; she is that Supreme Power who also creates, maintains and dissolves the universe; she is beyond the universe in her spiritual form . . . ; by the mantra “Hung” this supreme power of Shiwa will be aroused and led through the six-chakras to Parama Shiwa (Supreme Consciousness) ; then Kundalini who is in the nature of supreme bliss is made to unite and be one and the same with Shiwa in deep concentration; . . . and then Kundalini should be brought back tomuladhara; concentrate on Kundalini who is very bright like a thousand rising suns and extremely subtle and in the form of mantra and extends from muladhara to brahmarandhra (end of sushumna). Kundali is in three forms . . .—

Supreme (turiya) Kundali in sahasrara as Supreme Power (Mahatripurasundari); in muladhara, she is like molten gold and is in the nature of mantra, and she extends from muladhara to anahata and is called Fire (Wahni) Kundalini; concentration should be done on her; in anahata, she as Sun (Surya) Kundalini is as lustrous as a million suns and full of love, and extends from anahata to wishuddha; one should concentrate on her in calmness. In ajña, Kundalini isshining like a million moons and radiating “immortality”; she extends herself from ajña to the end of brahmarandhra and is called Moon (Chandra) Kundalini. . . . Supreme Kundali is in the form of supreme consciousness. Concentration should be done on her. Her complete spiritual form should be contemplated. . . . Concentration should be done again and again. . . . This is the process called antaryaga (mental worship) which leads to liberation’ (—Gandharwatantra, ch. 10, pp. 47–8).

This is a specific Tantrika process of arousing and conducting Kundalini to sahasrara. The process consists of the following factors:

1 Concentration should be done on Kundalini as shining red and extremely
subtle in muladhara.
2 Kundalini should be aroused by the mantra ‘Hung’ (with pranayama and
concentration).
3 Kundalini should then be conducted to sahasrara to unite herself with Parama
Shiwa.
4 Special concentration should be done on Fire Kundalini who is shining like
molten gold, and extending from muladhara to anahata.
5 Special concentration should be done on Sun Kundalini, very bright like many
suns and extending from anahata to wishuddha.
6 Special concentration on Moon Kundalini, shining like the moon and extending from ajña to the end of sushumna.7 Special concentration on Supreme Kundalini in the form of supreme spiritual consciousness with all divine power in sahasrara. This is the concentration on different aspects of Kundalini.

Kundalini in latent form has two aspects: Kundalini in three and a half coils around Swayambhuliṅga, lying in muladhara, called Kulakundalini; and Kundalini in eight coils, lying in sushumna from muladhara to indu, each of her coils being in each chakra (subtle centre)—muladhara, swadhishthana, manipura, anahata, wishuddha, ajña, manas and indu. These two aspects of Kundalini have been explained in both Waidika and Tantrika forms of layayoga.

That aspect of Kundalini, lying in the entire sushumna, has again beensubdivided into three forms, each having a Tantrika name. Kundalini, extending from muladhara to anahata, shining like molten gold, is called Fire Kundalini.

Kundalini who extends from anahata to ajña is as bright as one million suns and is called Sun Kundalini. Kundalini, extending from ajña to the end of sushumna and lustrous like a million moons, is termed Moon Kundalini. That aspect of Kundalini, which is beyond sushumna, being in sahasrara, and is always insuper-and supreme conscious states and all spirituality, has been termed in the Tantra, Turiya (Supreme) Kundalini. There are six forms of concentration on Kundalini in the Tantrika process.

They are as follow;
1 Concentration on Kulakundalini as extremely subtle and shining red, or
shining like lightning.
2 Concentration on shining molten gold-coloured Fire Kundalini.
3 Concentration on sunlike very bright Sun Kundalini.
4 Concentration on moonlike lustrous Moon Kundalini.
5 Concentration on very subtle and bright like the rising sun Kundalini inside
sushumna, extending from muladhara to the end of brahma nadi.
6 Concentration on Supreme Kundalini in sahasrara.

However, for the rousing of Kundalini, concentration should be done on Kulakundalini in muladhara. It should be done in conjunction with pranayama (breath control). At a certain stage of kumbhaka (breathsuspension), the sushumna-flow starts by which the blockage is removed that is caused by Kundalini who is in eight coils. It has been stated: ‘Worldly consciousness and activities are due to the diverse forms of bioenergy; for this reason the yogis practise bioenergy-control. Kundalini power, which is in eight coils in the sushumna, causes the blocking of the entire path; by the control of bioenergy, aninternalization and concentration of prana-energy occurs within the sushumna, which causes Kundalini to uncoil herself’ (—Shiwasanghita, 5.168–71). Kumbhaka in conjunction with concentration effects the sushumna flow and the uncoiling of Kundalini and her absorption into Supreme Kundalini. At this stage, the aroused Kulakundalini passes through the sushumna to reach the sahasrara.
When Kulakundalini is aroused by concentration and pranayama, the eightfold coiled Kundalini becomes uncoiled and is absorbed into Supreme Kundalini. Now, the entire brahma nadi is free and the aroused Kulakundalini passes through it to sahasrara. Mantra plays a most important role in the Tantrika process of arousing
Kundalini. But mere letter-form mantra is ineffective. Therefore, mantra shouldbe made living by appropriate processes. The enlivened mantra, technicallytermed Prana-mantra, is applied in conjunction with pranayama andconcentration. Purnananda says: ‘That divine Kulakundalini who is in the natureof the highest spirituality, and flashes like a million lightnings, who is verysubtle and in a latent form with three and a half coils, situated in the muladhara,should be aroused by prana-mantra’ (—Shaktakrama, ch. 1, p. 1).

There is a special process of concentration in conjunction with japa (soundprocess) which is done in arousing and conducting Kundalini through differentchakras (subtle centres). About this Shiwa says: ‘Directing his mind tomuladhara, the yogi should concentrate on divine Kundali who is in the nature of Brahman (Shabdabrahman—Brahman in mantra form), and make japa of fourlettered matrika-mantra ten times. . . . Then Kundali should be conducted toswadhishthana . . . where japa of six-lettered matrika-mantra with concentration should be done’ (—Bhutashuddhitantra, ch. 1, pp. 1–2). In this manner, japa and concentration should be done in manipura, anahata, wishuddha, ajña, indu and sahasrara (—Bhutashuddhitantra, ch. 2, p. 2). The importance of anal-lock in conjunction with tongue-lock in rousing

Kundalini has been emphasized. It is said: ‘According to the Merutantra, Kundalini should be aroused by inspiration through the left nostril, along with anal contraction to a moderate degree, and the tongue pressing on the palate (tongue-lock) from muladhara and united with Parama Shiwa in the thousandpetalled lotus’ (—Purashcharyarnawa, ch. 3, p. 191). It has been stated in the Tripurasaratantra that Kundalini and Swayambhu (-liṅga) are aroused by pranayama when they appear in their real forms (—Sarwolla

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